What Is a Brownout and What Should You Do During One?
If you know what a power surge is, a brownout is essentially the opposite. Instead of the voltage surging, the voltage sags, sometimes referred to as a voltage slump. However unlike power surges brownouts are sometimes caused on purpose by utility companies. Putting a power grid into a brownout for some can prevent overloads, stopping a potential blackout. Common and annoying but usually harmless traits of brownouts are flickering lights, the rapid switching on and off of appliances and interruptions to computing and the internet. However when it comes to valuable electronics, the irregular voltage can damage or destroy them. Therefore it is important to know what to do during a brownout, so that the risk of electronic damage is minimized.
Lights are more sensitive to brownouts, as any voltage changes alter their brightness. Appliances such as TVs smooth out the smaller voltage changes because they contain a lot of capacitors, which store electricity that can be used during times of low voltage to 'level it out'. This does not mean however, that complex appliances won't get damaged as much as lights in a brownout. It just means that the early signs of a brownout can be seen through lighting. In fact, lighting does not get damaged at all by brownouts. So when the lights start flickering badly the first thing you should do is unplug computers, TVs, printers, routers and cell phones or other devices that are charging.
During a brownout you should reduce your power consumption as much as possible. Why? Because brownouts are caused by a lack of electricity, so if everyone temporarily reduces the amount of power they're using the brownout will be over sooner. You don't need to switch off everything in your house, just heavy power suckers such as TVs, heaters, washing machines, dryers and dishwashers. Remember that you can resume all these appliances once the brownout is over. The length of brownouts can vary quite a lot. Some last only a few minutes, while others continue to toggle on and off for hours.
During a brownout you should always be prepared for a total blackout. If power consumption isn't reduced enough the result will be either the brownout not ending or a blackout sooner or later. When the power stabilizes after a brownout it is unlikely there will be a blackout, however you should continue to conserve electricity, otherwise you could be plunged straight back into a brownout.
When you notice the lights getting dimmer, the refrigerator sounds different or the above mentioned signs of a brown out, it is best to at the least save and then shut down all open programs you are working on the computer. Then shut down the computer. Then unplug the computer. TVs should also be unplugged as other sensitive devices. Turn off the air conditioning during a brownout, since air conditioner units can really use a lot of electricity.
Surge protectors will not protect your computer and computer peripherals during a brownout event, like they do during a power surge.
Thanks for reading!